Adding just a few polymers to a liquid can substantially change its behavior. The presence of polymers turns otherwise Newtonian fluids like water into viscoelastic fluids. When deformed, viscoelastic fluids have a response that is part viscous—like other fluids—and part elastic—like a rubber band that regains its initial shape. The collage above shows what happens to a thinning column of a viscoelastic fluid. Instead of breaking into a stream of droplets, the liquid forms drop connected with a thin filament, like beads on a string. In a Newtonian fluid, surface tension would tend to break off the drops at their narrowest point, but stretching the polymers in the viscoelastic fluid provides just enough normal stress to keep the filament intact. If the effect looks familiar, it may be because you’ve seen it in the mirror. Human saliva is a viscoelastic liquid! (Image credit: A. Wagner et al.)
For the first time ever, scientists have gathered direct evidence of a rare Wolf-Rayet star being linked to a specific type of stellar explosion known as a Type IIb supernova. Peter Nugent of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory says they caught this star – a whopping 360 million light years away – just a few hours after it exploded.